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Researchers at Penn State designed a pop-up electrode for brain monitoring and other applications requiring neural interfacing. The pop-up design starts life as a folded two-dimensional structure with a rigid outer coating that makes it easy to insert into the brain. Once in place, the hard coating dissolves, revealing a softer and more flexible material that is less likely to cause tissue damage. The device can unfold, like the structures in children’s pop-up books, to form a surface electrode array and four penetrating shanks that can measure signals from deeper within the neural tissue. The researchers hope that the device will help to drive advanced medical technologies, such as brain computer interfaces.
“It’s a challenge to understand the connectivity in between the large number of neuron cells within the brain,” said Huanyu Cheng, a researcher involved in the study. “In the past, people developed a device that is placed directly on the cortex to detect information on the surface layer, which is less invasive. But without inserting the device into the brain, it’s challenging to detect the intercortical information.”
While inserting electrodes into the brain itself, rather than just arranging them onto its surface, can lead to more information from deeper neural tissues, achieving a 3D perspective on how neurons interconnect would require multiple rigid probes to be placed in different areas, which can add up in terms of damage to neural tissues. This limitation prompted the researchers to develop a pop-up design in the hope that it can provide 3D connectivity data without a similar level of damage to the brain.
“To address this issue, we use the pop-up design,” said Cheng. “We can fabricate the sensor electrodes with resolution and performance comparable with the existing fabrication. But at the same time, we can pop them up into the 3D geometry before they are inserted into the brain. They are similar to the children’s pop-up books: You have the flat shape, and then you apply the compressive force. It transforms the 2D into 3D. It provides a 3D device with the performance comparable with the 2D.”
The researchers covered the device with a polyethylene glycol coating that imparts stiffness but breaks down in the brain, allowing the device to regain some flexibility. The researchers hope that the technology will assist in creating more effective and safer technologies that rely on neural interfacing.
“In addition to animal studies, some applications of the device use could be operations or treatments for diseases where you may not need to get the device out, but you’ll certainly want to make sure the device is biocompatible over a long period of time,” said Cheng. “It is beneficial to design the structure as small, soft and porous as possible so that the brain tissue can penetrate into and be able to use the device as a scaffold to grow up on top of that, leading to a much better recovery. We also would like to use biodegradable material that can be dissolved after use.”
Study in journal npj Flexible Electronics: Foldable three dimensional neural electrode arrays for simultaneous brain interfacing of cortical surface and intracortical multilayers
Via: Penn State
Scientists at Penn State have developed a microneedle bandage that can rapidly stop bleeding. Uncontrolled bleeding following a traumatic injury is a major cause of death in the young, and developing new medical technologies that can rapidly stop bleeding would be highly beneficial. This bandage contains an array of biodegradable and biocompatible microneedles made using a gelatin methacryloyl biomaterial. The device also contains silicate nanoplatelets that give it its hemostatic properties, and the needle structure increases the surface area for blood contact and helps to bind the bandage to the injured tissue.
Blood loss is a leading cause of death for Americans under the age of 46. If a traumatic injury occurs, then stopping blood loss is the first priority. Blood loss from some injuries can be stopped by applying a tourniquet, but this isn’t possible in every situation and for every injury. A ready-to-use, highly effective hemostatic bandage would be a particularly useful component in first aid kits or military field kits as a first-line defense against these situations.
“Excessive bleeding is a serious challenge for human health,” said Amir Sheikhi, a researcher involved in the study. “With hemorrhaging injuries, it is often the loss of blood — not the injury itself — that causes death. There is an unmet medical need for ready-to-use biomaterials that promote rapid blood coagulation.”
These researchers turned to microneedle arrays as a means to stop bleeding. Medgadget has reported on microneedle bandages before, but typically they are conceived as a means of drug or vaccine delivery. In this paradigm, the microneedles act to significantly increase the surface area of the bandage that contacts the blood emerging from the wound, and increase the adhesion between the bandage and the wound, which also helps with wound closure.
So far, the researchers have tested the bandage in a rat liver bleeding model, where it showed impressive efficacy and reduced bleeding by approximately 92% compared with an untreated control group. The bandages also outperformed a commercial hemostat in reducing bleeding.
“In vitro, the engineered microneedle arrays reduced clotting time from 11.5 minutes to 1.3 minutes; and in a rat liver bleeding model, they reduced bleeding by more than 90%,” said Sheikhi. “Those 10 minutes could be the difference between life and death.”
Study in journal Bioactive Materials: Tissue adhesive hemostatic microneedle arrays for rapid hemorrhage treatment
Via: Penn State
Researchers at the University of São Paulo in Brazil, along with collaborators in Germany and Sweden, have developed a flexible sensor that can detect heavy metals in sweat, an easily obtainable bodily fluid. Heavy metals, such as lead or cadmium, can cause serious toxicity if they accumulate in the body, but detecting the concentration of such metals in biological samples requires expensive laboratory equipment and skilled staff. To address this, these researchers have created a flexible sensor that is easy to use and which can detect metals in sweat samples before transmitting the results to a smartphone. The technology may assist in diagnosing heavy metal toxicity in areas of the world with limited access to diagnostic equipment.
Heavy metal is no fun, at least in the context of the human body. Exposure to high levels of these metals can cause significant toxicity. For those living in areas of the world without easy access to state-of-the-art equipment, diagnosing heavy metal toxicity is a challenge. However, this latest technology aims to change that with a low-cost, easy-to-use flexible heavy metal sensor that can measure these substances in sweat.
“We get important information on a person’s health by measuring their exposure to heavy metals. High levels of cadmium can lead to fatal problems in the airways, liver and kidneys,” said Augusto Raymundo Pereira, a researcher involved in the study. “Lead poisoning damages the central nervous system and causes irritability, cognitive impairment, fatigue, infertility, high blood pressure in adults and delayed growth and development in children.”
We tend to eliminate heavy metals from our bodies through the sweat and urine, which is convenient for diagnostic purposes as it means that invasive blood draws are not required to detect these metals. This latest technology is a flexible film sensor that can analyze sweat.
“The base of the device is polyethylene terephthalate [PET], on top of which is a conductive flexible copper adhesive tape, a label of the kind you can buy from a stationer’s, with the sensor printed on it, and a protective layer of nail varnish or spray,” said Robson da Silva, another researcher involved in the study. “The exposed copper is removed by immersion in ferric chloride solution for 20 minutes, followed by washing in distilled water to promote the necessary corrosion. All this ensures speed, scalability, low power and low cost,”
A team of researchers at North Carolina State University have developed an ultrasound transducer that can disrupt blood clots in the brain quickly by creating an ultrasound vortex or ‘tornado’. The transducer is designed to be housed in a catheter that can be advanced through the vasculature until it reaches the site of a blood clot in the brain, such as those that occur in cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The technique can disrupt clots more quickly than conventional forward-facing ultrasounds, as the vortex wave creates shear stress that helps to break the clot into pieces. The approach has the potential to disrupt clots much more quickly than pharmaceutical approaches, albeit with more procedural complexity.
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) occurs when a blood clot blocks a vein that drains blood from the brain. Clearly, this is a medical emergency and time is of the essence. However, many existing techniques to treat the condition involve trying to dissolve the clot, potentially through the use of clot busting drugs, but these approaches tend to take a long time. This latest technology aims to reduce this time significantly.
“Based on available data, pharmaceutical interventions to dissolve CVST blood clots take at least 15 hours, and average around 29 hours,” said Chengzhi Shi, a researcher involved in the study. “During in vitro testing, we were able to dissolve an acute blood clot in well under half an hour. The fact that our new technique works quickly is important, because CVST clots increase pressure on blood vessels in the brain. This increases the risk of a hemorrhage in the brain, which can be catastrophic for patients.”
Using acoustic waves to break clots apart has the potential to work much faster than thrombolytic drugs, but forward-facing ultrasound systems may not be the most efficient way to achieve this. “Our previous work looked at various techniques that use ultrasound to eliminate blood clots using what are essentially forward-facing waves,” said Xiaoning Jiang, another researcher involved in the study. “Our new work uses vortex ultrasound, where the ultrasound waves have a helical wavefront.
So far, the researchers have tested the system in vitro with cow blood in a 3D-printed cerebral venous sinus model, and showed that the ultrasound tornado could disrupt clots quickly. They also tested if the helical ultrasound caused damage to blood vessels using animal blood vessels, and found that the technique appears not to disrupt healthy tissue.
Researchers at the University of Arkansas have developed a nanopore sensor to study the aggregation of tau and tubulin protein molecules. These proteins, and specifically their aggregation in the brain, are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. This nanopore technology aims to allow researchers to study the effects of different environmental conditions, including pH, salt concentration, and temperature, on how these proteins aggregate. The researchers hope that their advancement can help to understand the underlying mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases and potentially identify new opportunities for treatment.
An accumulation of tiny protein tangles in the brain are a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. However, their formation and role in disease initiation and progression are not completely understood. Understanding how and why these tangles form could permit researchers to develop new treatments that target these processes.
This latest technology aims to characterize these protein tangles and their behavior. This involved creating a nanopore sensor in a silicon nitride membrane. The technology involves creating a flow of ions through the nanopore using an electric voltage and then analyzing how charged protein molecules affect the current.
“Ohm’s Law is the basic physics that enables the nanopore device to sense protein molecules,” said Jiali Li, a researcher involved in the study. “A tiny hole — from 6 to 30 nanometers — is made in a thin silicon nitride membrane and supported by a silicon substrate. When that is placed into a solution with salt ions, applying an electric voltage drives the ions’ flow through the hole, or nanopore. This, in turn, generates an open pore ionic current.”
These changes in current can reveal properties of the protein tangles, such as volume, shape, and size, and can this can assist the researchers in understanding how the tangles form and behave. “The amount of current drop produced by a protein molecule is proportional to the protein’s volume or size and shape,” said Li. “This implies that if protein A binds to protein B, they will cause a current drop proportional to the volume of A+B, and an aggregated protein A will cause approximately multiple amounts of current drop.”
“Our study shows that a silicon nitride nanopore device can measure volume information of tau and tubulin protein molecules and their aggregation under different biological conditions, and this gives us a better understanding of the protein aggregation process, as well as developing drugs or other therapeutic methods to treat neurodegenerative diseases,” said Li. “We plan to study the mechanism of protein aggregation under different biological conditions systematically, such as temperature, pH, and salt concentration.”
Study in Journal of Applied Physics: Tau and tubulin protein aggregation characterization by solid-state nanopore method and atomic force microscopy
Researchers at the University of Colorado at Boulder have developed a smart walking stick that can assist blind or visually impaired people to navigate their environment, from grocery shopping to finding a seat in a busy café. The system employs cameras to visualize the environment and items within it, such as products in a supermarket, and uses AI to identify objects and provide guidance for the user. The stick can provide verbal and haptic prompts to help the user to move closer to a desired product on a supermarket shelf, for example. The researchers hope that the technology will assist the visually impaired in gaining more independence when performing everyday tasks.
Assistive technologies are a huge deal for those who benefit from them. Empowering someone to lead a more independent life can pay dividends in terms of enhanced mental health and in freeing up healthcare and social care resources that can be used elsewhere. This latest assistive technology uses recent technological advancements in self-driving cars to help the visually impaired in performing everyday activities.
“AI and computer vision are improving, and people are using them to build self-driving cars and similar inventions,” said Shivendra Agrawal, a researcher involved in the study. “But these technologies also have the potential to improve quality of life for many people.”
The stick resembles a standard cane, but also includes cameras that can employ computer vision techniques to map out the surrounding environment. The device uses AI to make sense of what it is seeing. A user can specify that the technology help them to achieve a certain task, such as finding an empty table in a restaurant.
“Imagine you’re in a café,” said Agrawal. “You don’t want to sit just anywhere. You usually take a seat close to the walls to preserve your privacy, and you usually don’t like to sit face-to-face with a stranger.” So far, the researchers have tested this application in a mock café with blindfolded volunteers, and after surveying the scene with the stick, the technology calculated a route to the most suitable seat and guided the users to it.
Other applications involve identifying particular products on a supermarket shelf, allowing users to choose their shopping. “Our aim is to make this technology mature but also attract other researchers into this field of assistive robotics,” said Agrawal. “We think assistive robotics has the potential to change the world.”
See a video about the technology below.
Study in 2022 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems: A Novel Perceptive Robotic Cane with Haptic Navigation for Enabling Vision-Independent Participation in the Social Dynamics of Seat Choice
Fun and durable, the FluidStance balance board deck can be found at many offices these days as working professionals with desk jobs look for ways to stay active and healthy. Long hours slumped over at a desk means that your muscles remain inactive for long periods of time – a running hypothesis is that long periods of inactivity lead to issues with glucose regulation, as muscles cease their regular glucose uptake and the body adapts to a sedentary lifestyle.
FluidStance’s balance board, Level, provides an engaging alternative to this by forcing your body to engage different muscles to balance. Yet, it’s not so challenging of a position that it is overly taxing, but may require some time to acclimate to longer standing times. Research shows that the Level balance board increases energy expenditure by 19.2% as compared to sitting, which is well over the 10% threshold that qualifies a product for NEAT certification (NEAT stands for the science of Non Exercise Activity Thermogenesis, developed by Mayo Clinic). On average, there was also a 15% increase in heart rate while using the FluidStance deck versus the same sitting population.
Designed thoughtfully, such that the product doesn’t make you struggle to balance to stay upright, the average range of motion of 24 degrees promotes subtle movements that limit dorsiflexion (toes above heels) and plantarflexion (toes below heels) to angles that are comparable to walking. You may even find yourself standing for longer than anticipated with this product.
There are multiple models: The Original, Level, Plane Cloud, and Grade for Kids. The design and construction of the product is sleek and solid. The Plane Cloud offers soft foam on the top deck for those looking for a little extra anti-fatigue while standing. (FluidStance actually has an anti-fatigue mat made of flexible wood as well).
While the price point may be a bit high for some, the craft, construction, and benefits may just justify the cost.
We had the pleasure of speaking with founder, Joel Heath to learn more.
Alice Ferng, Medgadget: Please tell our Medgadget audience a bit more about yourself and your background. What inspired you to create this product, and to continue iterating on it? Was this something you had done before?
Mr. Joel Heath (Founder & CEO of FluidStance): The first company I founded was based in Vail, Colorado where we created the largest outdoor adventure event in the world, the [GoPro] Mountain Games. I had a fairly active life working in the mountains and it was common for our staff meetings to be on a chairlift or on a trail. We worked hard and played hard. After selling the company in 2008, I got into footwear and later became President of Teva Footwear. My corporate gig put me in a chair, airplane seat or at a desk for inordinate amount of time. Simply put, I lost my mojo. I built a standup desk to try to get off my butt, but I found that I just moved my pain point from my backside to my knees and hips. I started to play with ideas on how you could create enough movement to matter, but not too much to distract my work. 27 different prototypes later tinkering in my garage workshop, the Level® was born. I worked with footwear designers, engineers and footwear labs to find the sweet spot for optimal movement at your desk.
The Level increases energy expenditure by 19.2% compared to sitting—well over the 10% threshold that qualifies a product for NEAT() certification (NEAT() stands for the science of Non Exercise Activity Thermogenesis, developed by Mayo Clinic). When using your Level, you’re actively burning calories by allowing for more movement throughout the day.
Medgadget: What’s been some of the most unexpected challenges you’ve encountered in making this product?
Mr. Heath: After making shoes in China, I wanted to walk a factory line and tuck my kids into bed, so I set off to make FluidStance products in the United States. I was surprised how little infrastructure was here compared to what I was familiar overseas. My Dad had a small machine parts business in the 90s, but so much of that industry moved overseas. It took a ton of searching to find someone that would be willing to help an unknown startup make something unconventional. Perseverance paid off and the first products started to ship twelve months after the final prototype was tested and approved by the Lab.
Medgadget: What sorts of improvements are you making over time to the product? What sort of thinking goes into the angles, curvatures, and general design?
Mr. Heath: A big part of what we wanted to make sure our standing desk balance board products delivered was not to over burden the calf and achilles with too much surface variability. We found the sweet spot and madre sure the curvature and lift of each of our models would provide the same “ride.” On average our users spend 3+ hours a workday on our product.
We have always been committed to making our products over-engineered, so they can outlast your “career” and be passed down to the next generation. On top of that, we try to source as close to home, with as little plastic as possible and when we do use plastic it is predominately of recycled materials. For example our Plane® Balance Board is made of recycled tires and post-industrial waste.
Medgadget: You now have multiple variations of the FluidStance board – what sorts of customer feedback and user needs motivate you to create each variation? What sorts of feedback is useful?
Mr. Heath: We originally launched with the Level® which is made of military-grade aluminum and multi-ply bamboo with a water based finish and zero emitting VOC finish. We built it as a “forever product,” but we heard that segment of the market also wanted an entry level product. That is when we brought the Plane® into the mix. It was a challenge to build a product that upheld the FluidStance way, but our team used some non-traditional techniques to use high-density recycled content to get us the performance we wanted.
We are big believers in “active standing” versus “passive standing” that is done on an anti-fatigue mat. From my days in footwear, I know that cushioning might feel good when you initially stand on it, but you actually fake your body into standing “harder.” Your body is meant to move, not sit into a surface. As much as I tried to convince everyone, some people wanted our balance boards with softer surfaces too, so the UpMat and Cloud was created as a partner to our balance boards.
Medgadget: Have you used technology to look at a person’s skeletal alignment as they are standing on the balance board? It’s definitely easy to feel the body adjusting to the stimulus and has made it easier to stand for longer periods of time with shifting weight – have you done a deeper study on the postural ergonomics or general health benefits?
Mr. Heath: We have not looked at skeletal alignment in a lab, just through the ten years of being on the market and the anecdotal feedback we get. That is something I would love to do, so we can back up what so many customers tell us by improved balance. Throughout the years, we did do a ton of motion capture sensor and pressure plate research in our lab. The sensors tracked movement while people worked to measure their dorsiflexion and plantar-flexion. We supplemented that research with CO2 analysis while working with Westmont College. The Mayo Clinic and the University of Idaho have also done numerous tests with our product. A synopsis of that research can be found in these white papers.
Medgadget: What’s next? Any exciting new plans? Or anything else you want to share with our readership?
Mr. Heath: Our next new product looks at mental flow and helping people with focus at their desk. The product is very simple, yet beautiful and follows much of the new research around that mental focus follows visual focus. The “108 Focal Timer” should hit the market in December.
Link: FluidStance homepage…
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed centimeter-scale biobots that combine soft materials, mouse muscle tissue, and wireless electronic components. The tiny devices can be controlled remotely through optogenetics. The muscle within the devices forms an optogenetic actuator and creates movement when exposed to light. The researchers can control this movement remotely by activating on-board micro-LEDs wirelessly, which then stimulate the muscle actuators to propel the biobot. The technology could be used in the future to perform tasks within the body, such as surgical applications or drug delivery.
Optogenetics, a technique in which light stimulation can produce specific effects in genetically modified cells, could be very useful for biomedical applications, including both clinical and research activities. However, the technique requires light to reach the modified cells or tissues before the desired effect can be produced, which can be a problem inside our bodies. Possible solutions include fiber optic cables that are advanced into the body from the outside, but this is cumbersome and prone to infections.
These researchers have taken optogenetics to the next level by using it as the basis for movement in a centimeter-scale biobot. The tiny devices incorporate soft materials with mouse muscle tissue that is light sensitive and can produce movement when stimulated with the correct type of light. However, employing the biobot inside the body required a new approach that would allow the device to illuminate itself in response to a wireless command, and thereby produce movement.
The solution included integrating microelectronic components into the device that would allow it to illuminate several on-board micro-LEDs. These components include a receiver coil that allows the biobots to harvest their own power, meaning that they are battery-free. Each micro-LED illuminates a different portion of the muscle tissue within the biobot, allowing for accurate movements such as turning in a specific direction.
“Integrating microelectronics allows the merger of the biological world and the electronics world, both with many advantages of their own, to now produce these electronic biobots and machines that could be useful for many medical, sensing and environmental applications in the future,” said Rashid Bashir, a researcher involved in the study
See a video about the technology below:
Study in journal Science Robotics: Remote control of muscle-driven miniature robots with battery-free wireless optoelectronics
Researchers at Linköping University in Sweden have developed artificial neurons that demonstrate 15 of the 20 characteristics of biological neural cells and can communicate with natural neurons in the body. The researchers call their device the “conductance-based organic electrochemical neuron,” or c-OECN, and it is based on materials that can conduct a negative charge, including organic electrochemical transistors and n-type conducting polymers. By printing thousands of such transistors on a flexible substrate, the researchers have been able to create artificial neurons. The device uses ions to control the flow of electricity, just like biological neurons, and so far, the Swedish team has demonstrated that it can control the vagus nerve in mice, suggesting that it has great potential in medical applications.
As medical technologies advance, researchers are becoming more adept at mimicking biological functions using human-made components. This latest artificial neuron is a case in point, as it makes use of ions to control the electricity flowing through it, just as biological neurons do by opening and closing ion channels. The researchers hope that these newly crafted artificial neurons may assist with more realistic neural control in a variety of medical technologies.
“One of the key challenges in creating artificial neurons that effectively mimic real biological neurons is the ability to incorporate ion modulation,” said Simone Fabiano, a researcher involved in the study. “Traditional artificial neurons made of silicon can emulate many neural features but cannot communicate through ions. In contrast, c-OECNs use ions to demonstrate several key features of real biological neurons.”
The artificial neurons use ions to control the electricity that flows through the conducting polymer within them, which results in voltage spikes that mimic what occurs in real neurons. The technology allows the device to increase and decrease current in a controlled manner as a near perfect bell curve, which is reminiscent of the electrical activity in neurons that is controlled by sodium ion channels.
So far, the researchers have tested the technology in mice, and implanted the printed neurons with the aim of controlling the vagus nerve. The neurons successfully communicated with the vagus nerve, resulting in a 4.5% decrease in heart rate in the mice.
“There is much we still don’t fully understand about the human brain and nerve cells,” said Padinhare Cholakkal Harikesh, another researcher involved in the study. “In fact, we don’t know how the nerve cell makes use of many of these 15 demonstrated features. Mimicking the nerve cells can enable us to understand the brain better and build circuits capable of performing intelligent tasks. We’ve got a long road ahead, but this study is a good start.”
Study in journal Nature Materials: Ion-tunable antiambipolarity in mixed ion–electron conducting polymers enables biorealistic organic electrochemical neurons
Via: Linköping University
A team of researchers at the Harvard Wyss Institute have developed a soft, hydrogel scaffold that can function as a living electrode for brain-computer interface applications. The researchers used electrically conductive materials and created a porous and flexible scaffold using a freeze-drying process. They then seeded the scaffold with human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and cultured the scaffolds for extended periods, prompting the cells to differentiate into a variety of neurons and astrocytes. The researchers hope that the resulting ‘living electrode’ could be useful for brain-computer interfaces, as its soft and flexible nature will help it to conform with soft neural tissues and its cellular cargo will help to enhance its biocompatibility and potential efficacy.
The scaffold consists of a soft hydrogel (gray) that contains carbon nanotubes (blue) and graphene flakes (red) as conductive materials to transmit electrical impulses throughout the scaffold. Credit: Wyss Institute at Harvard University
Brain-computer interfaces hold enormous promise in unlocking therapeutic outcomes that would have seemed like science fiction just a few short years ago. From controlling wheelchairs with the mind to restoring sight to the blind, the opportunities in enhancing patient well-being are huge. However, the technology still has a way to go and on a first look, machines and the human body are not a match made in heaven. The interfacing electrodes in such systems are typically made using metal and are rigid, both of which do not assist the technology in non-invasively interacting with delicate neural tissues.When grown on a viscoelastic hydrogel scaffold, human neural progenitor cells differentiate into multiple cell types that are found in the human brain, including oligodendrocytes (green) that produce myelin (white). Credit: Wyss Institute at Harvard University
These researchers set out to create an electrode that is not just flexible, but also covered in living neural cells, and is based on the concept that living tissue is likely to be the most biocompatible material to interface with other living tissue. The researchers also conceived the cell-laden material as delivering electrical impulses more naturally through cell-cell contact.
“This conductive, hydrogel-based scaffold has great potential,” said Christina Tringides, a researcher involved in the study. “Not only can it be used to study the formation of human neural networks in vitro, it could also enable the creation of implantable biohybrid BCIs that more seamlessly integrate with a patient’s brain tissue, improving their performance and decreasing risk of injury.”
To create their scaffolds, the researchers used an alginate hydrogel and added some carbon nano-materials for electrical conductivity before a final freeze-drying step. The freeze drying process creates ice-crystals in the material that then sublime during freeze-drying, leaving many pores into which cells can enter and live. They seeded the scaffolds with neural progenitor cells, which then differentiated into more mature neural cells during an extended culture period.
“The successful differentiation of human NPCs into multiple types of brain cells within our scaffolds is confirmation that the conductive hydrogel provides them the right kind of environment in which to grow in vitro,” said Dave Mooney, another researcher involved in the study. “It was especially exciting to see myelination on the neurons’ axons, as that has been an ongoing challenge to replicate in living models of the brain.”
Study in journal Advanced Healthcare Materials: Tunable Conductive Hydrogel Scaffolds for Neural Cell Differentiation
Researchers at the National Eye Institute, which is part of the National Institutes of Health, have created a method to 3D bioprint eye tissue that forms the outer blood-retina barrier. This tissue supports the photoreceptors in the retina and is implicated in the initiation of age-related macular degeneration.The outer blood-retina barrier is the interface of the retina and the choroid, including Bruch’s membrane and the choriocapillaris. Image credit: National Eye Institute.
The researchers combined different cell types, which are primarily derived from patient stem cells, in a hydrogel carrier that is suitable for bioprinting and created a tissue structure that mimics many of the features of the native tissue. The researchers hope that the technique will allow them to create an unlimited supply of eye tissue with which to study various eye diseases.
Researchers are making strides in developing more advanced in vitro tissue models to study disease. Many diseases lack relevant and useful in vitro models and in many cases experimental animals may not accurately mimic human physiology, as well as entailing ethical concerns. Therefore, there is a need to develop more advanced in vitro systems that allow us to accurately mimic human tissues and study disease.The eye’s outer blood-retina barrier comprises retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch’s membrane and the choriocapillaris. Image credit: National Eye Institute.
“We know that age-related macular degeneration starts in the outer blood-retina barrier,” said Kapil Bharti, a researcher involved in the study. “However, mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration initiation and progression to advanced dry and wet stages remain poorly understood due to the lack of physiologically relevant human models.”
To address this, these researchers developed a 3D bioprinted model of the outer blood-retina barrier. In age-related macular degeneration, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of this tissue breaks down, leading to photoreceptor degeneration and eventual vision impairment.
To create the printed constructs, the researchers combined three cell types, which had been derived from patient stem cells. These were pericytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. They mixed the cells with a temperature sensitive hydrogel and then bioprinted the mixture onto a biodegradable scaffold.Growth of blood vessels across printed rows of an endothelial-pericyte-fibroblast cell mixture. By day 7, blood vessels fill in the space between the rows, forming a network of capillaries. Image credit: Kapil Bharti.
The researchers cultured the tissue constructs and observed that they reached maturity about six weeks later, demonstrating features of the native outer blood-retina barrier. They were then able to model age-related macular degeneration by exposing the tissue to low oxygen and they tested the effects of drugs that are used to treat the condition in humans.
“By printing cells, we’re facilitating the exchange of cellular cues that are necessary for normal outer blood-retina barrier anatomy,” said Bharti. “For example, presence of RPE cells induces gene expression changes in fibroblasts that contribute to the formation of Bruch’s membrane — something that was suggested many years ago but wasn’t proven until our model.”
Here’s an NIH video about this research:
Study in journal Nature Methods: Bioprinted 3D outer retina barrier uncovers RPE-dependent choroidal phenotype in advanced macular degeneration
A Turkish court overturned a decision by the national antitrust regulator that two years ago fined Roche and Novartis more than $30 million for conspiring to spread misinformation about an eye treatment, a rare victory for the companies after legal setbacks elsewhere.
In response to appeals filed by both drugmakers, an administrative court in Ankara, Turkey, determined that the Turkish Competition Board failed to demonstrate that Novartis and Roche colluded illegally to promote the eye medication. As a result, the antitrust watchdog was instructed to repay the fines to both companies.
Hired someone new and exciting? Promoted a rising star? Finally solved that hard-to-fill spot? Share the news with us, and we’ll share it with others. That’s right. Send us your changes, and we’ll find a home for them. Don’t be shy. Everyone wants to know who is coming and going.
And here is our regular feature in which we highlight a different person each week. This time around, we note that Ring Therapeutics hired Christopher Wright as chief medical officer and head of translational research. Previously, he worked at AavantiBio, where he was also chief medical officer.
And so, another working week will soon draw to a close. Not a moment too soon, yes? This is, you may recall, our treasured signal to daydream about weekend plans. Our agenda is rather modest. We plan to catch up on our reading, stroll about with our official mascot, and, given the frigid weather in our neighborhood, stay indoors to hold another listening party with Mrs. Pharmalot (the rotation will include this, this and this). And what about you? This is a fine time to plan a spring getaway. You could park yourself in front of the telly to binge watch. Or purchase a winter sweater before prices rise still further. Well, whatever you do, have a grand time. But be safe. Enjoy, and see you soon. …
A blistering battle has broken out between the ALS Association and more than a dozen of its state and local chapters, which are resisting a move by the national headquarters to dismantle their offices and run operations around the U.S., STAT reports. Fifteen chapters claim the national office is attempting the takeover in order to grab a larger share of revenue these local offices send to association headquarters, according to a lawsuit filed in a Delaware state court. Currently, the national office is entitled to nearly 14% of all revenue that is raised by ALS chapters. The money is invested in research, clinic certification, and lobbying, among other activities.
Layoffs in the tech sector — think Google, Amazon, Meta, and the like — from jobs once thought to be secure and prestigious are making headlines. I’ve been seeing an outpouring of media coverage, including support extended toward newly unemployed tech workers, judgments passed on tech leaders, practical suggestions of opportunities, and analyses of underlying causes and next steps.
As a senior epidemiologist recently laid off from working at governmental health departments, this attention makes me wistful (if not downright jealous). Thousands of layoffs have occurred in the public health sector over the past year with little support or fanfare. (Some aren’t calling what’s happening in public health “layoffs.” Whatever the term — “job expirations,” “failure to renew contracts,” “inability to honor commitments,” or the blunt “terminations” — the effect is still the same.)
Vertex Pharmaceuticals revolutionized the treatment of cystic fibrosis. It also has unfinished business.
The Boston drugmaker’s medicines for the genetic disease — which damages the lungs and other organs — have transformed the lives of patients, helping them abandon other time-consuming treatments, shrug off what would have been dangerous respiratory infections, and just live breathing easier. The drugs, a number of so-called modulators approved starting in 2012, have been one of the great biotech success stories.
The dietary supplement industry has been begging for federal oversight of products containing cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive compound found in the cannabis plant that is being incorporated into a bewildering range of oils, tinctures, edibles, and other products. Certification by the Food and Drug Administration that these products are safe and useful against many common ailments could unleash a $60 billion annual market by 2030.
But the FDA turned down industry trade groups, and for good reason. Regulators can set standards only for products they understand, and right now the evidence on CBD safety is thin to nonexistent, and is similarly speculative on its effectiveness.
The Federal Trade Commission took aim at prescription drug coupon site GoodRx this week in an early attempt to crack down on the unfettered sharing of consumers’ health data for advertising. It was the first time the agency had gone after such a health data violation.
But with the vast amounts of patient information now being mined and shared online, it’ll be far from the last.
A blistering battle has broken out between the ALS Association and more than a dozen of its state and local chapters, which are resisting a move by the national headquarters to dismantle their offices and run operations around the U.S.
Fifteen chapters claim the national office is attempting the takeover in order to grab a larger share of revenue these local offices send to association headquarters, according to a lawsuit filed in a Delaware state court. Currently, the national office is entitled to nearly 14% of all revenue that is raised by ALS chapters. The money is invested in research, clinic certification, and lobbying, among other activities.
WASHINGTON — Teva Pharmaceuticals has quit the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, STAT has learned.
“Teva has decided not to renew its membership with PhRMA in 2023,” PhRMA spokesperson Brian Newell confirmed.
An incident that took place at a Dutch polio vaccine production facility late last year is a critical reminder of a major challenge the world faces if and when polio eradication is completed: How do we keep polio from re-establishing itself, given that laboratories and vaccine manufacturers in numerous countries will need to continue to work with the viruses?
An employee of Bilthoven Biologicals in the Netherlands somehow became infected with type 3 polio, one of the two strains of polioviruses that have been eradicated. The company, owned by the Serum Institute of India, makes inactivated polio vaccines, using polioviruses that are killed in the production process.
The Senate finally made long-expected committee assignments official on Thursday, kickstarting a new session for the top health committee under an unlikely pair: Vermont Independent and drug-pricing firebrand Bernie Sanders, and Louisiana Republican and doctor Bill Cassidy.
STAT separately spoke with both senators about their top priorities for the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, where they think Democrats and Republicans can work together on the health care agenda, and where they diverge.
Is the next Lipitor on the way? When is a pandemic over-over? And what’s a Texas two-step?
We cover all that and more this week on “The Readout LOUD,” STAT’s biotech podcast. STAT Washington correspondent Rachel Cohrs joins us to explain the looming end of Covid-19’s status as a federal emergency and what that does and doesn’t mean for public health. We also dig into the most interesting stories from a busy week of pharmaceutical earnings and discuss a legal setback for Johnson & Johnson.
NEW YORK — U.S. health officials are advising people to stop using over-the-counter eye drops that have been linked to an outbreak of drug-resistant infections.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Wednesday night sent a health alert to physicians, saying the outbreak includes at least 55 people in 12 states. One died.
WASHINGTON — A majority of Americans support banning all tobacco products, according to a new poll published by researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The survey, which was published Thursday in the peer-reviewed journal Preventing Chronic Disease, asked 6,455 people nationwide: “To what extent would you support a policy to prohibit the sale of all tobacco products?” A little over 57% of respondents said they would support such a policy.
Top of the morning to you. And a fine one it is. Sunny skies and brisk breezes are greeting us today, which calls for a celebration with — you guessed it — a cup of stimulation. Our flavor of choice is cinnamon dolce, for those keeping track. Despite the gorgeous weather, there is much to keep us in front of the laptop, however. This sounds familiar, yes? So time to get started with a few tidbits. Have a wonderful day, and drop us a line if you hear anything interesting. We are set up to receive postcards and telegrams. …
The U.K. pharmaceutical industry trade group called for the U.K. government to scrap its plans to raise repayment rates for drug companies in order to avoid possible setbacks in the sector, Reuters notes. Drug companies that are part of a voluntary agreement, which makes branded medicines affordable, are required to pay a part of their revenue to the government. The U.K. Department of Health and Social Care plans to raise the revenue clawback rate to 27.5% from 24.5%. The ongoing attempt to raise rates is likely to send the “worst possible signal” to global investors and boardrooms, said the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry.
There are about as many Americans living with addiction as there are Americans living with cancer — but you wouldn’t know it based on the world of venture capital.
In the past decade, investment firms have poured roughly 270 times more money into developing cancer drugs than addiction cures, according to a new report from BIO, the biotechnology industry trade group.
China’s massive Covid-19 crisis, sparked in part by the country’s rolling back its strict zero-Covid policies in early December, has seen millions of people infected with SARS-CoV-2. Making the problem worse is that supplies of name-brand Covid-19 drugs are few and far between, and generics of these drugs won’t be available in China due to failed manufacturer negotiations.
The surge in travel for the recent Lunar New Year celebration, which had been discouraged by the government since the pandemic emerged in Wuhan in late 2019, could maintain the peak of the infection for another few weeks. A top Chinese epidemiologist has estimated that about 80% of people in China, a country of 1.4 billion people, have been infected with the virus.
The deaths of nearly 30 children under the age of 15 years from invasive strep A infections in the United Kingdom between September 2022 and January 2023, together with a rise in new invasive strep A infections in that country, made headlines around the world. In Kenya, about 100 children aged 5 and younger died from invasive strep A infections over the same period — which did not make headlines.
Group A Streptococcus bacteria, also known as strep A, are responsible for mild infections such as sore throat, impetigo, and scarlet fever. They also cause more serious invasive diseases like bloodstream infections, toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing fasciitis, the so-called flesh-eating disease. Infection with strep A bacteria can also trigger lifelong autoimmune diseases like rheumatic heart disease.
WASHINGTON — The new Democratic leadership team in Congress is pretty much the New York hospital lobby’s dream team.
Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.) has long been an ally of the Greater New York Hospital Association, often pushing for more funding for teaching slots at hospitals. He goes back decades with the lobby’s CEO, Kenneth Raske. And new House Minority Leader Hakeem Jeffries (D-N.Y.) is another New Yorker representing a Brooklyn district, though he has a less robust record on health care.
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Try to consciously remember to blink every three to five seconds. The more times you blink the better for your eyes. Blinking exercises: Blink lightly but very quickly ten to twenty times. Optivisol not do this strongly or abruptly tighten the eye muscle. Then close your eyes and relax them. Repeat this 2 to three times. This will keep your eyes moist, relaxed and release any tension. www.Optivisol.ph
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Unfortunately, people, especially those with lower vision side effects, have trained their thoughts to focus on just one object and block peripheral vision.Whenever you look at something, always visit yourself so you should be aware of peripheral vision as well. Try contraindications to notice everything that is in your field of vision at a given moment. In this way, you will prevent unnecessary strain on the eyes, and improve vision. Scientific research suggests that poor eyesight in may be linked to some extent to the lack of time spend playing outdoors. www.Optivisol.phOptivisol opinions, forum, comments
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Optivisol where to buy astigmatismis also a relatively common cause of uncorrected or poorly corrected diopters that can cause headaches. The problem with astigmatism is somewhat more complex than with ordinary farsightedness, because with astigmatism there are two different diopters in each eye that create two distant focal points, not just one focal point as is common with common vision errors such as farsightedness and nearsightedness.
There are many combinations of these focal points in one eye, so that for example both may be in front of the retina or one in front and the other behind or both may be behind the retina, but the other eye may not have the same combination as the first. Optivisol where to buy therefore, astigmatism is quite demanding to determine the glasses and as a rule requires an examination with dilated pupils, the so-called skioscopy. Once properly diagnosed, astigmatism very rarely changes significantly, so patients typically have the same diopter for years.
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In addition to wearing glasses, can now be completely reliably solved by wearing contact lenses or laser. so that patients typically have the same diopter for years. Optivisol manufacturer apart from the fact that dioptric errors of farsightedness and astigmatism that can cause headaches, it is important to determine the correct diopter, it is also very important to make quality glasses that will match the position of the eye in all its proportions.
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Diabetrin pathology widespread, diabetes is a metabolic alteration chronic, characterized by the presence of high levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) due to a decrease in the activity of insulin, the hormone produced by the pancreas that allows glucose to enter the cells and be used as a source of energy. When this mechanism is altered, due to a reduced availability of insulin, an impediment to its normal action, or due to the co-occurrence of both factors, the blood sugar, i.e. the concentration of glucose in the blood, increases.
Diabetrin it affects about 10% of people with diabetes mellitus and usually arises in childhood or adolescence (Juvenile Diabetes). In these cases, the pancreas is unable to supply insulin due to the destruction of the β-cells that produce it: it is therefore necessary that the hormone be injected daily current user reviews 2022, throughout life. The rate of destruction of β-cells is quite variable, so the appearance of the disease can occur in some people rather quickly (usually in children and adolescents) and more slowly in others (in adults). www.Diabetrin.ph
The cause of Type 1 diabetes is not known, but Diabetrin ingredients capsules the presence in the blood of antibodies directed against antigens present in insulin-producing cells, called ions, GAD, IA-2, IA-2 β, is typical. This altered immune response leads to progressive destruction of β cells, a damage that could be linked to environmental or genetic factors. For this reason, Type 1 diabetes is included in the group of so-called “autoimmune” diseases, that is, how does it work due to an immune reaction directed against the body itself. Among the possible triggering agents, some viruses have been proposed, including that of mumps, those of encephalomyocarditis, cytomegalovirus, Diabetrin how does it work other possible non-infectious agents, including some substances present in milk, are also being studied.
It is the most common form of diabetes and includes about 90% of cases of the disease. The cause is not yet known, despite the fact that Diabetrin ingredients it is certain that the pancreas can produce insulin composition, but the cells of the body are not able to use it ingredients. Usually, the disease manifests itself after 30-40 years. There are numerous risk factors related to its occurrence: among them, familiarity with diabetes, overweight, poor exercise and belonging to certain ethnicities.
Often, Type 2 diabetes is not diagnosed for several years, Diabetrin ingredients since hyperglycemia develops gradually and, at first, does not manifest itself with the classic symptoms of diabetes. The risk of developing pathology increases with age.
Gestational diabetes concerns situations when the high level of circulating glucose is detected for the first time. This condition, which occurs in about 4% of side effects, how to take it implies a greater frequency of checks for both the expectant mother and the fetus.
Type 1 diabetes is conditioned by genetic factors, Diabetrin how to take it which imply a predisposition to develop the disease: however, to provoke it, these genetic factors must be added to factors external to the subject. How does diabetes develop? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease: it involves, in fact, what is it for the destruction of pancreatic cells responsible for the production of insulin, by the same immune system of the subject. To trigger the destructive process are antibodies (called self).
In the onset of Type 2 diabetes, two main causes come into play, Diabetrin how to take it namely the resistance of muscle tissue to insulin and the deterioration, over time, of the function of pancreatic cells. Among the causes of diabetes, sedentary lifestyle and increased body weight are of considerable importance. In addition, Diabetrin how does it work aging also contributes to the manifestation of the genetic defect that is the basis of Type 2 diabetes. In diabetes with endocrine changes, hyperglycemia arises contraindications from excessive production of hormones such as cortisol, adrenaline, GH, thyroid hormones. www.Diabetrin.phDiabetrin opinions, forum, comments
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Symptomatology depends on the type of diabetes. In the case of Type 1 diabetes, an acute onset usually occurs, often associated with a febrile episode, with excessive thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, weight loss, dry skin. Other common diabetes symptoms are: slow healing of cuts or infections, changes in vision, itching. In Type 2 diabetes the symptomatology is more attenuated and, usually, does not allow a quick diagnosis forum: often, in fact, Diabetrin opinions the blood sugar is high but without the manifestations of Type 1 diabetes.
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Insulins are distinguished by duration of action into short – acting (2 – 4 hours), pre-meal, intermediate-acting (12-24 hours) and long-acting (up to 36 hours) insulins. Lispro, Aspart and Glulisine are insulins characterized by a higher rate of absorption, Diabetrin forum obtained by making small changes to the amino acid sequences of human insulin current user reviews 2022. Intermediate insulins include NPH (neutral insulin protamine Hagoton) and “slow”insulin. Examples of slow insulins, on the other hand, are “ultra slow” insulin, protamine zinc, Glargine, Detemir and Deglutec. www.Diabetrin.phDiabetrin how much does it cost, price
The oral hypoglycemic agents, which Diabetrin how much does it cost act on cells in the still-functioning of the pancreas and peripheral tissues, are diabetes of first choice for the of type 2 diabetes, but are totally ineffective in the case of complete deficiency of the β-cells, i.e. in type 1 diabetes.
The disease requires tradition, but, in addition to diabetes and a proper diet, the use of natural foods Diabetrin price that make use of medicinal plants active on carbohydrate metabolism can be useful. The natural based tinctures, teas or capsules, take advantage of the properties of plants, such as eucalyptus (rich in substances that are hypoglycemic and antioxidant), myrtle (the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor), elderberry (action insulin-stimulating), galega (hypoglycemic), opuntia (blocks the absorption of sugars), the american ginseng (reduces the absorption of carbohydrates, how much does it cost promotes the release of insulin and facilitates the uptake of the tissue glucose).
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It gradually makes the body so weak and Diabetrin lazada hollow from within that the life of the diabetic patient can be threatened. Usually, the problem of diabetes is seen in elderly people. However, due to poor lifestyle and lack of care, young people and children are becoming more and more victims. The cause of diabetes is blood sugar levels in the body to be controlled and when this happens ebay, your body begins to show symptoms of diabetes lazada. Some changes in the legs begin to occur when blood sugar levels in the body are uncontrolled. If your feet are also showing some of these symptoms, get your blood sugar test done immediately. Recognizing this disease at the beginning quickly makes it easier to control it.
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In bed, body hair, and in the seams and folds of clothing where body lice live because the heat of your body enables hatching. Body lice, or Pediculus humanus humanus, spread through direct contact between people, or through bedding, clothing, or anywhere else this parasite survives what is it for. Lice will die by applying shampoo or lotion that kills lice all over the body.
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Conventional can get rid parasites more quickly and with fewer side effects than most alternative. Alternative may be helpful along with conventional. However, you must find out what kind of organism is causing your problems before you start. The following nutritional guidelines may help keep parasites from growing.
However, some manufacturers of parasite cleanses and other detox products may inflate these numbers price. Many makers of parasite cleanse products will go so far as to say everyone should do a parasite cleanse once or twice a year, Max Detox price with or without evidence of them having a parasite. In reality, the only people who need parasites are the people who have parasitic infections. Anyone who is concerned they have a parasitic infection.
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Some of the most common ways people get these parasites are by eating raw meat or fish (especially sushi or pork), traveling to developing nations, drinking contaminated water, or having sexual intercourse with someone who already has a parasitic infection. Even shaking hands with someone with poor hygiene or sleeping with a pet could infect you with a parasite. As you could see, there are many ways in which a person can get a parasite.
Although to pinworms exist, they aren’t a recommended first-line in pharmacies. Support for the use of these is primarily anecdotal. This means that scientific data doesn’t support the use for pinworms. What may work for someone else may not work for you. If you have allergies, you should be careful when trying home. If you’re concerned about a potential reaction, you should test the on a small patch of skin before applying it to the affected area where to buy.
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A parasite cleanse is any diet, or other detox product that is intended to eliminate parasites from the body without using. Many companies go so far as to recommend these cleanses for just about anyone, Max Detox Philippines without ever diagnosing them with a parasitic infection. Many natural plants and compounds may help the body clear out parasites. However, in cases where a person does not have a parasite, Max Detox amazon they will do very little lazada. In this article amazon, learn more about parasite cleanses and what the evidence says about whether they are effective.
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According to health experts, poisoning begins to accumulate in our body due to various ebay, infections and other physical health problems. It is essential to get rid of this problem as it can cause serious damage to the body inside. Here the process of detoxification of the body can have a significant contribution Philippines. Supposedly can eliminate toxins from the body through detoxification. These include following special diets, lifestyle changes and taking supplements.
Notice if you choke or cough these symptoms are commonly associated with goalkeepers this worm has a tendency to move from the abdomen to the chest area. When it moves manufacturer, it may cause you gagging because it is a foreign body running through your system. Parasites are organisms that live in and feed off a living host. There are a variety of parasitic worms that can take up residence in humans. Among them are flatworms, roundworms, and thorny-headed worms (spiny-headed worms). www.MaxDetox.ph
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What symptoms do you have, when did they start and how often do they appear what medicines are you taking are you allergic to medicines do you have any serious illnesses in your family have you had any medical complications recently have you had to be ised tell your the reason for your visit.
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The Czech society for hypertension reports that 25% of Czechs do not know about high blood pressure at all. If no one has measured your blood pressure in the last two years TensioCare where to buy , make sure you visit your GP medicines to reduce high blood pressure do exist, but they can have side effects such as leg cramps, dizziness and insomnia. Fortunately TensioCare where to buy, most people can reduce high blood pressure naturally without taking, only with the help of commonly available means.
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Prostanil capsules for prostate. Prostate is a type of that occurs in men. Just as breast only occurs in women, prostate only occurs in men. Men over 50 years of age have a higher risk of prostate current user reviews 2022. Prostate is one of the most commonly occurring. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland that produces semen that moves sperm. Many prostate progress slowly and are confined to the prostate gland, and do not cause any serious damage. Although there are several types of prostate that spread rapidly and require. If prostate is diagnosed early, its complications can be minimized. Let’s tell you in detail about prostate in this article today.
The exact cause of prostate is not yet known. Prostanil it is the changes and mutations that occur in the DNA of prostate cells that lead to changes and uncontrolled, abnormal cell division. This leads to prostate. Abnormal cells grow faster than normal surrounding cells, forming tumors. This tumor attacks further cells and tissues. Some abnormal cells can spread to other parts of the body (metastasis), causing secondary to other parts of the body (eg – bladder). www.Prostanil.ph
Enlargement of the prostate gland has become a very common problem. Most men are facing this at the present time. Increasing prostate size after age 40 is a normal disorder. Increasing the size of this gland as you age is a normal process side effects. Its normal weight is 7-18 grams. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located between the bladder and the penis. The prostate is right in front of the rectum. The urethra runs through the center of the prostate, Prostanil how to take it from the bladder to the penis, Prostanil ingredients causing urine to flow out of the body. The prostate secretes fluid that provides nutrition and protection to sperm.
During ejaculation, the prostate squeezes this fluid into the urethra contraindications, and expels it with sperm in the form of semen. But the Prostanil ingredients good news is that experts point out that you can easily relieve how does it work it by recognizing some of the common symptoms and signs of prostate gland enlargement. In this article Prostanil how to take it we are sharing some tips by your expert on how you can recognize the symptoms of enlargement of the prostate gland as well as what you can do to relieve it.
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Prostate enlargement is a common condition associated with increasing age. Almost every third man over the age of 50 years may show signs of prostate enlargement. The urethra is a tube, which goes from the bladder through the prostate to the end of the penis. When a man urinates, Prostanil how does it work urine from the body flows and comes out through this same urethra. If the prostate how to take it is enlarged it can put pressure on the urethra, causing trouble emptying the bladder. www.Prostanil.phProstanil opinions, forum, comments
Enlarged prostate gland, can cause symptoms in which urination has trouble getting out of the body in a normal way forum. However opinions, Prostanil comments there are some such as alpha blockers , which are proven to help relax the muscles of the prostate gland or reduce its size comments, Prostanil forum making it easier to urinate. In severe cases where the is not effective, the inner part of the prostate gland, which becomes a barrier to the urethra, can be surgically removed. Read more about prostate enlargement.
Cases of prostate in men are increasing rapidly today. There may be many reasons behind increasing cases of prostate but lack of information makes the take on severe forms in people. You may not notice any symptoms Prostanil forum when you have prostate at the beginning, which makes it difficult to predict. But upon reaching the advanced stage your body shows some signs through which you can judge this. Let’s know about them current user reviews 2022.
The prostate gland is a gland of nut size found in men. It surrounds the tube of urine, under the pouch of urine. As one ages, Prostanil opinions its size changes. This causes the urine tube to press all around. This is called enlargement of prostate or BPH-benign in prostate hyperplasia, which is not. By the age of 50 about 40 percent of men and by the age of 70 about 60 percent of men have prostate gland (BPH) problems. Effective of the is possible if it in time. But the problem of prostate is life-threatening. When prostate size starts to increase due to in men it is considered more dangerous.
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When the tumor is formed by abnormal, malignant growth of cells in the prostate, it is called prostate. When the begins to spread to other areas of the body, it is still called prostate because the is made up of prostate cells. At its initial stage, prostate is confined to the pituitary gland. But if it is not detected and at the right time, it can also spread to nearby organs. This makes it more deadly. This occurs only in men.
Men who begin to develop prostate may experience certain symptoms after a certain threshold. By understanding these symptoms, if at the right time, the can prevent it from taking a fatal form.Prostate causes difficulty when urinating. There may be a feeling of pain, sharp pricking. This causes bleeding in the semen. It is generally believed that the onset of this is not known, so many men are unable to prevent this in time. However how much does it cost, it is absolutely wrong to think that because prostate, like any other, has certain symptoms that indicate its onset.
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Because of this, the amount of urine collected in the urinary sac increases. This can result in a person’s activation of the urinary tract and even stopping urination. As a result pharmacy, the kidneys do not completely remove urea from the body. This causes increased urea in the blood, which is harmful to the body. The prostate is a male reproductive organ that helps the secretion of important fluids along with semen. It is a walnut-sized gland located between the bladder and the penis.
The urethra is surrounded by a prostate below the bladder. The fluid secreted by the prostate contains essential Prostanil where to buy elements such as citric acid, zinc, and various enzymes. A urethra is surrounded by a prostate. When the prostate enlarges the urethra shrinks in size which causes problems in urination and many other problems. It becomes difficult for men to carry out their daily tasks in such a condition in pharmacies.
They are not able to urinate comfortably for a long time or attend a program that involves sitting in the same position for a long time. The disorder of an enlarged prostate is known as BPH Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Most often this disorder is found in men which usually occurs after the age of 60 to 65 years. This is not a form of such a dangerous as, Prostanil where to buy but, on the contrary, a normal aging health barrier found in men where to buy. It can also be due to hormonal imbalance. Although the problem may be a normal aging symptom it should. This disorder can also lead to liver or kidney problems if not given proper attention.
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They also help remove urine and also help cure BPH symptoms. They control the production of urine in the body and reduce the symptom of the disorder. Every male has a prostate in his body, which is important for his sex life lazada, Prostanil Philippines yet only a few men are aware of his prostate about what problems he may have with him. Better knowledge about this walnut-sized gland can help men make better choices about their screening.
The prostate is located under the bladder or bladder. It produces some fluid of semen and is very special for a man’s sex life. Men’s prostate also increases with increasing age amazon, but two-thirds of men over the age of 50 have no problem with it. In some cases, Prostanil manufacturer an enlarged prostate causes pressure on the bladder or bladder tube to carry urine, and this leads to urination problems. It is known as benign prostate enlargement.
Other prostate problems include inflammation ebay, which is called prostatitis, IE inflammation of the prostate. This problem can be caused by an infection. It hurts a lot while urinating. At times a single cell in the prostate starts to multiply out of control and can lead to. However, obesity and diet such as sugary foods and foods such as dairy products, and supplements such as stearic acid, vitamin E, Vitamin A and excess calcium can significantly increase the risk of prostate. In addition, Prostanil amazon randomized supplement intake during can interfere with and cause adverse effects.
A healthy and well-balanced diet that provides the right nutrition is important for staying away from prostate as well as reducing symptoms and improving outcomes ebay. Proper nutrition gives patients the power to handle Philippines, getting the best out of as well as improving their quality of life. If your prostate is larger than normal size, Prostanil lazada it can spoil your sex life. In fact, the prostate gland, also known as the prostate gland, is an important semen-producing gland. At times it increases with age or due to hormonal changes manufacturer. For this reason many men also face troubles. www.Prostanil.ph
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MenoProtect capsules for menopausal. Menopause occurs when a woman stops menstruating and is no longer able to get naturally. Menstruation usually begins to subside for a few months or even years before it stops. Sometimes they can suddenly stop. Menopause is a natural part of aging that usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, because a woman’s estrogen levels decrease. In , the average age of a woman to reach menopause is 51.
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MenoProtect how to take it it is common for women to lose interest in sex during menopause, but HRT can often help. If HRT is not effective, you may be advised testosterone supplement what is it for. Testosterone is the male sex hormone, but it can help re-increase sex drive in menopausal women how does it work. It is not currently licensed for use in women, MenoProtect ingredients although it may be prescribed by a if they think it may help. Possible side effects of testosterone supplements include acne and unwanted hair growth. Read more about decreased libido and female sexual problems how to take it.
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The age of menopause worldwide is 45-55 years. Studies indicate that the average age of menopause in Turkey is 46-48. What are the factors affecting menopause? What are premenopausal period disorders? What symptoms appear after menopause? How is menopause diagnosed? Sex life in menopause, MenoProtect forum how should nutrition in menopause? What to do in menopause? What is hormone replacement therapy? Who can not receive hormone therapy?
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In the medium term, the drop in estrogen levels, producing a decreased trophism of organs that depend on these hormones, affecting in particular certain structures of the vaginal and urinary system, which produce atrophy of the skin and mucous membranes and decrease in collagen, which is the most important compound in connective tissues, MenoProtect where to buy which in turn will cause changes in the statics of these organs because it determines the degree of resistance and turgor of the tissues.
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These changes usually occur at the age of 45 to 50 years. With increasing age, every woman has to spend a third or more of her life with the common problems of menopause. Menopause is the normal and natural stage in woman’s life amazon. This is just a temporary stage and it is. So if we prepare well, MenoProtect lazada we can win half the battle against this problem right there ebay. Many women do not show signs of menopause, MenoProtect Philippines and many women may experience all of the following symptoms.
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Between 12 and 14 years, the ovaries are fully developed and one egg is released into the uterine placenta every month. With it the two hormones estrogen and progesterone are formed. These hormones cause the lining of the uterus to thicken with blood and mucus. During this time, if the egg comes in contact with the sperm, it fertilizes and the woman. If it is not fertilized in the meantime, the thick layer of the uterus comes out of the vagina in the form of blood together with the egg, which is called menstruation or period. www.MenoProtect.ph
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Weight Loss Tips For Women weight gain and obesity in women is a very serious problem today. Weight loss methods are the most searched question on the internet today. Weight gain is more common in women than men because women spend most of their time. In addition, women have different muscle levels than men. Weight gain and obesity can trap your body in a variety. Fit&Sleep how much does it cost there are many reasons for weight gain in women such as not doing physical activities and exercise price. Let’s get to know Weight Loss Tips for women in detail.
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Women to reduce their weight create a diary in which they write down all the information about their food. Fit&Sleep where to buy, pharmacy using a food journal to track what you eat is the easy way to reduce your weight. It also makes it easier to count calories, which can be an effective strategy for weight management. This will help you keep track of your daily calorie intake and keep your weight low for a long time.
Nowadays it has been seen that some people are very crazy behind fitness. Women are not far behind. Women are more concerned about their health and figure than men. But it has been observed that women are not able to remove excess fat due to physical appearance. While some small things can be taken care of, Fit&Sleep where to buy, pharmacy fat can be removed. Let’s go to the weight loss tips for women which are as follows.
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Losing weight according to a plan is safe. Losing weight quickly during this time is not recommended and you should therefore lose weight slowly. The best way to lose weight is to keep your lifestyle healthy, eat less fat, and exercise regularly daily. Fit&Sleep lazada a also helps the mother lose weight because during this time, the stored fat in the mother’s body makes milk and gets energy.
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There is a rule ebay when it comes to losing weight, of 80-20. This means that only 20 percent of your workouts should be involved in losing weight and the rest 80 percent of the weight should be reduced with the help of a diet. Awareness of diet can make your work easier while continuing with fitness efforts. Fit&Sleep amazon the results may surprise you lazada. So learn about foods that can be a step in the weight loss mission.
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Amidst flu season and ongoing COVID-19 waves, it is concerning to see children’s hospitals around the country filled with patients infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) – a phenomenon commonly discussed as ‘Tridemic’ or ‘Tripledemic’. Despite being so common for a long time, RSV was not getting much attention earlier. Because of the complexity of this ‘Tridemic’, many parents are now anxious to learn more about this.
Based on the gradually gained knowledge over 15+ years about this common and surprisingly dangerous virus, scientists have tried to answer many common questions including what is RSV, what are its symptoms, how is RSV transmitted, how severe is an RSV infection, why are cases surging now, is there a vaccine for RSV, how is RSV treated, what should someone do if they think they or a family member has RSV, when should someone with RSV go to the hospital, and what can one do to protect vulnerable people from RSV.
More than ever, it is very important to identify pathogens quickly and properly by using tests like Acutis Reveal™ respiratory infection test (RIT) that can detect up to 22 major respiratory pathogens including RSV A and B within 24 hours.
Although COVID-19 took countless lives and the world’s response was not perfect, it has taught us several lessons potentially useful to respond to future pandemics. Unfortunately, predictions are grimmer for many similar or even worse pandemics necessitating countries to ensure that they are better prepared to deal with pandemics than they were for COVID-19.
Throughout the pandemic, we witnessed high points such as the speed of vaccines and diagnostics development as well as low points such as the unequal distribution of those resources globally and confused messaging revealing weaknesses in how public-health authorities communicate.
Out of the many lessons learned, some important ones include the need for global zoonoses monitoring, obtaining and sharing the genetic sequences of viruses globally as they emerge, strengthening the manufacturing of diagnostics and vaccines, developing vaccines for rapid production in advance, and stopping the spread right away at its origin. Newer advancements like machine learning and climate modeling could be very useful for achieving such goals, especially in predicting infectious-disease outbreaks.
In summary, preparing for future pandemics involves strengthening the entire chain of the outbreak response, from identifying a pathogen with proper diagnostics to timely mass vaccination.
The uncontrolled rise and spread of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) have transformed from individual observations in the 1940–1960s into a worldwide multi-drug resistance (MDR) crisis with a grim projection to kill ~10 million people per year by 2050. Amidst several ongoing innovations to look for solutions, Scientists from Switzerland utilizing new high-resolution microscopic images, showed that Polymyxins, one of the mysterious last-resort antibiotics, crystallize the cell membranes of bacteria. Scientists utilized a powerful tool called atomic force microscopy (AFM) along with structural biology and biochemistry assays to study how polymyxin antibiotics interact with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in bacterial membranes.
They discovered that polymyxins arrange LPS into hexagonal assemblies to form crystalline structures. After almost a hundred years of its use, scientists provided evidence to suggest that the formation of rigid LPS–polymyxin crystals and subsequent membrane disruption is the mechanism of polymyxin action. This discovery could provide a benchmark for optimization and de novo design of LPS-targeting antimicrobials, with hopes to tackle the AMR problem more efficiently. While these are promising developments for the future, as of now, diagnosing infections promptly using kits like Acutis Reveal™, and treating them appropriately at first is the only measure to curb the burden of AMR.
Although serious illness and hospitalization from severe COVID are remarkedly low, the recent rise of Omicron Subvariant XBB.1.5 is highly concerning.
First detected last October in the US, XBB.1.5 has been circulating in at least 38 countries, including Canada, Australia, Kuwait, Germany, and France, and now accounts for 43% of the COVID-19 cases in the US for the week ending Jan 14, a sharp rise from only 27.6% and 18.3% for the week ending Jan 7 and Dec 31 respectively.
XBB.1.5, unofficially named Kraken, is a combination of two strains of the subvariant BA.2. On Jan 4, WHO called this the “most transmissible subvariant detected yet”. WHO has no definitive evidence that Kraken will lead to more severe disease than its predecessors. However, since the mutations within this subvariant of Omicron allow this virus to adhere to the cell and replicate more quickly, scientists warn everyone to be highly vigilant till definitive evidence arises in either direction.
Since the bivalent vaccine, which includes a combination of the original virus and the Omicron variant, continues to provide “good protection” including against XBB strains in terms of preventing severe acute disease, scientists urge everyone to get boosted ASAP.
While progress is made day by day, Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) remains the biggest public health threat of the era with projections for ~10 million deaths per year by 2050. New studies reveal that controlled substances like Cocaine, have a negative impact on gut microbiota, increasing epinephrine levels, which not only influences animals’ response to these substances but also promotes the virulence of certain bacterial species, potentially affecting the AMR equation.
A mice study showed increased norepinephrine levels following Cocaine use that facilitated Proteobacteria colonization in the gut. Such colonization depleted glycine in the gut, blood, and CSF that altered Cocaine-induced neuroplasticity and drug responses. There are pieces of evidence supporting the fact that gut microbiome composition is linked to human behavior and gut bacteriophages are linked to cognition. Since the mice infected with the bacterium Citrobacter rodentium, the murine counterpart of a pathogenic E. coli in humans, are known to sense neurotransmitters from its host and increase its virulence in response to them, although just shown in mice for now, this could be a groundbreaking discovery to pave paths in solving the mystery of AMR, as well as could potentially be exploited to modulate reward-related brain circuits that contribute to SUDs.
The news that the FDA accepted licensing application from Astrazeneca/Sanofi for its expedited review for a single-dose long-acting antibody (Nirsevimab) is highly encouraging. This is indicated to prevent Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infections in newborns and infants entering or during their first RSV season, as well as children aged up to 24 months who are vulnerable to severe RSV disease through to their second RSV season.
Nirsevimab demonstrated up to 74.5% reduction in lower-respiratory tract infections, such as bronchiolitis or pneumonia, caused by RSV, and would become the first and only single-dose, passive immunization for a broad newborn and infant population in the US. This brings us one step closer to providing an effective protective option against this incredibly contagious disease responsible for the hospitalization of babies less than 1 year of age. This has already been approved in Europe and if everything goes well, it is expected to be approved in the US by the third quarter – just in time for the 2023/24 RSV season. Till then, scientists reiterate the importance of quickly and properly identifying pathogens by using tests like Acutis Reveal™ respiratory infection test (RIT) that can detect up to 22 major respiratory pathogens including RSV A and B within 24 hours.
Although the rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines saved countless lives, lessons taught to us by the COVID-19 pandemic with varied and not optimal protection by these vaccines have urged the scientific community to look for better strategies to maximize the vaccine's efficacy. Scientists have learned that the best vaccines are the ones that mimic what an actual infection looks like without making you sick. Scientists have developed a new vaccine strategy involving formulation changes, an initial escalating dose, and a longer wait for booster immunization resulting in more-effective antibody production against HIV.
Evidence suggests that the changes in formulation, escalating initial dose, a longer wait for booster immunization, etc. trigger an effective immune response by properly training B-cells to generate antibodies that bind and neutralize the pathogen in question. It seems to provide an optimal condition for B-Cells to start evolving through a process of random mutation and selection for cells that produce antibodies with better affinity for that antigen. Although this strategy was tried in HIV, scientists believe this novel proof of concept might be useful in designing vaccines against difficult targets, including the development of better vaccines against COVID-19 and a universal flu vaccine that provides protection against many different strains.
Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is an unintended natural phenomenon that occurs when microorganisms are exposed to drugs. It is a growing health threat, and without prompt action to develop new antimicrobial modalities and therapies, it is projected to kill ~10 million people per year by 2050.
Since microorganisms evolve quickly, pathogens have adopted even the last resort antibiotics. This necessitates the urgent discovery of newer agents with a different mode of action than those that have developed AMR while maintaining, and/or improving the efficacy of existing antibiotics. In an eloquent study, scientists developed hemithioindigo (HTI)-based molecular machines capable of specifically killing growing bacteria and antibiotic-tolerant persister cells of deadly bacteria like Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) within minutes of activation with visible light, including the elimination of biofilms of S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis in as little as 1 hour after light activation, and without causing any harm to mammalian cells. While these are promising developments, as of today diagnosing infections promptly using prominent diagnostic kits like Acutis Reveal™, multiplex PCR-based tests covering a wide array of pathogens, are the only available measures to identify the pathogen and treat the infections promptly so as to lower the burden of AMR.
The data among people 12 and older showing more than 165 million people in the US using some sort of substances (i.e. tobacco, alcohol, kratom, or an illicit drug) in 2019 suggests that substance use disorder (SUD) is a growing public health problem. Unlike the availability of some medications for opioid use disorder and alcohol use disorder, since we lack an effective medication for stimulant use disorders, including cocaine use disorder, the news that researchers were able to use an innovative computational approach to identify a generic drug that could be repurposed to treat cocaine toxicity is exciting.
By analyzing the gene expression data from post-mortem human brain tissues from 71 individuals, 36 of whom died from a cocaine overdose, and then using the NIH Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) L1000 database to identify potential drug candidates, scientists from Emory University were able to identify IBRUTINIB, a drug commonly used to treat cancer, as a potential candidate for treating cocaine toxicity.
They reported that the genes that were highly expressed in the brains of cocaine users were expressed at low levels in neuronal cells when treated with the drug and vice versa.
As the winter is kicking in, scientists are worried about the compelling evidence suggesting for a surge of COVID-19 this autumn and winter. Along with a bigger comeback of RSV and Flu, the emergence of new immune-evading strains of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, behavior changes, and waning immunity are more likely to push the infection rates higher. Scientists are exploring the factors that might drive a COVID-19 wave and the ways to minimize the effects with the new generation of vaccines and other preventive measures.
For individuals and public health agencies to get well prepared, scientists are digging into basic questions like whether will there be a COVID-19 wave this autumn and winter, are new variants behind rising case numbers, will we see a new Omicron strain this autumn, why are these variants on the rise, how big will autumn–winter waves be, what about the new vaccines, etc. Although evidence hinges towards a potential surge, fortunately, COVID-19 vaccines, both old and new, remain highly effective in preventing severe diseases and death, thus urging for concentrated booster campaigns on those at the highest risk of severe disease, including older and immunocompromised people, who will benefit the most from the added protection.
Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) is an infection of the genitourinary system passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The burden of STIs is very high in the US with the CDC estimates of 1 in 5 people (about 20 percent of the U.S. population). If not diagnosed and treated promptly, STIs can lead to bladder problems, damage to organs, reduced life expectancy, infertility in women, and other complications.
Unfortunately, on top of several inherent issues associated with STIs, the COVID-19 pandemic added another complexity leading to low coverage for preventative, diagnostic, and treatment services consequently promoting the resurgence of STIs and the emergence of non-classical STIs globally. Even in developed countries like the US and Canada, where STI surveillance data is available, there is an increase in at least 3 STIs: Syphilis, Gonorrhea, and Chlamydia. The global picture seems grim with reports of a rise in outbreaks of non-classical STIs spread by sexual contacts such as Shigella sonnei, Hepatitis A, Neisseria meningitidis, Zika, and Ebola; and the re-emergence of neglected STIs such as Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV). It is more important than ever to use cutting-edge diagnostic tests like Acutis Reveal™ STI to promptly identify the pathogen and treat it appropriately.
While everyone is concerned about COVID-19 infection, pregnant women are more concerned about trying to do everything to protect themselves and their babies. Unfortunately, the data so far shows that pregnant people infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at higher risk for severe disease and death, as well as complications in their pregnancies.
It was frightening during the early days of the pandemic as there were no answers for even many of the basic questions. Questions include whether pregnancy increases the risk of getting sicker or dying from the virus and if it was possible to transmit the virus to a fetus in utero or to an infant through breastfeeding. After years into the pandemic, we do have many but not all answers about it. It looks like the physical and immunological changes that take place during pregnancy do appear to make pregnant women more susceptible to severe disease, pregnancy complications such as preterm birth or miscarriages, and death. There is also evidence piling up for possible long-term effects due to SARS-CoV-2 exposure in utero. Interestingly, the sex of the fetus also seems to be associated with the altered immune response to COVID-19 during pregnancy.
It is a piece of worrisome news that the US has now joined a list of 30+ countries including the UK, Israel, Egypt, Yemen, and around two dozen in Africa where the circulation of the poliovirus has been identified, and a case of paralytic polio was reported from Rockland County in New York in July. Although polio vaccines have contained the virus globally, reporting of its spread in New York has alarmed US public health agencies. Unfortunately, since poliovirus is very good at finding unvaccinated individuals, the reports of a very low childhood polio vaccination rate in some New York communities are highly concerning.
There are two types of vaccines available against polio, one given as a shot in the arm or leg, and one given as a liquid orally. While many countries still use oral vaccines, the shot is the only one given in the US after 2000. Although both vaccines provide protection against wild poliovirus and vaccine-derived poliovirus, the viruses used in the oral vaccines can still spread when defecated in the stool despite being too weakened to cause serious disease. The problem comes when such a virus from the oral vaccine spreads among too many people and regains its ability to cause paralytic polio.
Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest public health threats of the era impacting advances in surgery, wound healing, cancer treatment, organ transplants, and other areas of modern medicine by decreasing our ability to control infections. Without accelerated efforts in diagnostic and therapeutic developments, it is projected to kill ~10 million people every year by 2050.
Amidst this global challenge, there is exciting news from the University of Minnesota that could impact how we treat AMR bacterial infections.
Inspired by the structure of the human salivary protein, BPIFA2, scientists examined an antibacterial peptide and its potential impact on drug-resistant bacteria. They focused on whether it could kill common drug-resistant bacteria, bacterial biofilms, and whether the bacteria would become resistant to the new peptide or not. The team of scientists found a potent in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria tested. They hope it will be equally effective against nasty MDR pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii, with which very few existing antibiotics work. While we wait for the clinical development of such exciting drugs, minimizing the development of MDR by promptly and accurately diagnosing the infections with diagnostic kits like Acutis Reveal™ is the best approach to date.
Alerts for a potential finding for future ‘Spillover’ events originating from parts of Southeast Asia where the human and bat population densities are highest is worrisome. It presents a big challenge for public health agencies as the data predicts approximately 66,000 potential coronavirus infections annually. A recent study analyzed the geographic ranges of 26 bat species in Southeast Asia.
This showed their habitat overlapped with regions where half a billion people live, representing an area larger than 5 million square kilometers, posed a huge potential for tens of thousands of people to get SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses each year. Although most of these SARS-related viruses don’t easily spread amongst humans or cause illness, scientists worry that the continuous ‘raining down on people’ could eventually lead to a pandemic.
The study mostly relied on outdated and low-resolution geographical range data looking only at bat-to-human spillover events which did not consider infections that first transmit from bats to an intermediate animal and later to humans. With this in mind, scientists think more refined and precise studies could prove to be very valuable in monitoring spillover events in high-risk regions and to identify outbreaks sooner.
While the mystery of ‘Long-COVID’ has been a ‘real mystery’, some clues are emerging. Since multiple organs are involved with varieties of symptoms in ‘Long-COVID’, scientists are hypothesizing that the tiny clots might be responsible for causing the ‘Long-COVID’s puzzling symptoms. Long-lasting COVID-19 symptoms and involvement of multiple organs could be due to tiny, persistent clots that constrict blood flow to vital organs.
Although no trials of the anticoagulant treatment have been successfully conducted yet and the anticoagulating somebody is not a benign thing, growing number of scientists in their published and unpublished studies, and an increasing number of people with the condition, are advocating for the trials of anticoagulant treatments so that stronger causal evidence can be established for its safer use. Also, whether the tiny clot is causing the symptoms of ‘Long-COVID’ or is this just another unusual COVID phenomenon, is still not clear. Such trials would help consolidating the scattered evidence and would bring all the stakeholders together towards consensus. While the ‘micro-clot’ hypothesis seems promising, ‘Long-COVID’ sufferers are in terrible pain, are desperately looking for some therapies, and have pertinent questions like where are the drug trials? why is it taking so long? etc.
While there is still a huge controversy on whether the COVID-19 vaccines really help or not, there is an interesting and potentially very important finding that the people who have been vaccinated or have had prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, not only protect themselves from getting an infection, but it also reduces the likelihood of a person infecting their close contacts.
In a not-yet peer-reviewed study conducted in US prisons, researchers found that either the vaccination or previous infection significantly reduced the likelihood of the person transmitting the virus to their close contacts, with 24% and 21% reduced likelihood of transmitting the infection if they received at least a shot or if they were infected before with the virus respectively. Furthermore, the likelihood of transmission went further down to 41% if people were both vaccinated and previously infected. Each vaccine dose reduced the risk of transmission by an additional 12%. Although the benefit of vaccines in reducing transmission does not last long, scientists think such findings are welcoming news and encourage everyone to get vaccinated, not only to protect themselves but also for protecting children, loved ones and several elderly and immunocompromised individuals in the community living with high risk factors.
Recently FDA authorized updated COVID-19 booster shots targeting Omicron subvariants. Along with mRNA and protein vaccines based on the spike protein from the ancestral version of SARS-CoV-2, we now have options for new mRNA vaccines with spike sequences from both the ancestral virus and Omicron variants. The availability of these different choices has confused people on which vaccines to take and when.
Scientists have gathered the information and tried to answer some of the questions like, what do we know about the recently authorized Omicron-specific versions of the COVID vaccine? Whether we should get a regular booster or the Omicron specific one, how long should we wait between the boosters, what happens if we get too many boosters etc. Since all these questions are hard and would require more time to get clear answers, scientists think the decision should be at a personal level based on their individual risk for severe diseases, infection rate in their community, how stringent protective measures they can follow etc. Although there are not any reports of harm by receiving a COVID-19 booster sooner, researchers suggest for waiting at least four months between doses as getting sooner would have little or no benefit.
Since there are many more spray vaccines in development around the world, and China and India have recently approved an inhaled version of a COVID-19 vaccine for use as a booster dose, it has tremendous potential to change the dynamics of the pandemic. While data from well-controlled clinical trials are still pending, people are wondering whether spray vaccines could be the future of COVID-19 vaccines or not.
Since COVID-19 is a respiratory disease, it is very reasonable to believe that these vaccines could prime immune cells in the thin mucous membranes that line cavities in the nose and mouth where SARS-CoV-2 enters the body, and quickly stop the virus before it spreads. While scientists hope that these vaccines administered through the nose or mouth will potentially prevent even mild cases of illness and block transmission to other people, achieving what’s known as sterilizing immunity; several pertaining questions like why might mucosal vaccines be better than conventional shots, how good are mucosal vaccines against other diseases, where/when might mucosal COVID-19 vaccines be available, can mucosal COVID-19 vaccines induce sterilizing immunity, how are researchers measuring the efficacy of mucosal vaccines in people and more are waiting for answers through a well-controlled trial.
‘Long-COVID’ is an awful sequela of COVID-19 and researchers don’t yet have an official definition for it, and its symptoms range widely from general symptoms to respiratory and heart symptoms, neurological symptoms, digestive symptoms, and other symptoms. It is mostly diagnosed with symptoms such as fatigue, brain fog, or heart problems more than four weeks after COVID-19 onset. Moreover, people seem to be getting ‘Long-COVID’ at a disproportionate rate and the risk factors are vaguely known.
Hints on who’s at risk are accumulating with studies suggesting women, elderly and COVID-19 patients who had more than five symptoms in the first week of infection or had preexisting health conditions such as asthma being more likely to develop ‘Long-COVID’.
Since COVID-19 is not just one disease impacting the lungs, heart, or brain, and ‘Long-COVID’ encompasses such a wide range of symptoms, Scientists think it will take time to uncover the risk factors and risk groups. As of now, keeping away from the infection by following preventative measures and completing the vaccination seems to be the only way to avoid the chances of ‘Long-COVID’.
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